24 Studies on Green Spaces
Written by Matt Marrandino
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We’ve all likely read about the many health benefits of hiking, which shows that spending time in nature is good for you. But even if you can’t escape the city, spending time in local parks and urban green spaces can still offer a number of great health benefits. Here we will take a look at 24 scientific studies showing how green space is good for you.
Living in areas with walkable green spaces positively influenced the longevity of urban senior citizens independent of their age, sex, marital status, baseline functional status, and socioeconomic status. 
One systematic review showed strong evidence for significant positive associations between the quantity of green space and perceived mental health and all-cause mortality, and moderate evidence for an association with perceived general health.
One study found that respondents with a high amount of green space in a 3-km radius were less affected by experiencing a stressful life event than respondents with a low amount of green space in this radius. The same pattern was observed for perceived mental health, although it was marginally significant.
One review examining multiple studies found some of the most important benefits of green spaces in a city are the social and psychological benefits. Urban green spaces provide resources for relaxation and recreation. This helps in emotional healing (therapeutic) and physical relaxation.
One study found that respondents living more than 1 km away from a green space have 1.42 higher odds of experiencing stress than do respondents living less than 300 m from a green space. Respondents who did not report stress were more likely to visit a green space than respondents reporting stress.
Descriptive epidemiological research has shown a positive relationship between the amount of green space in the living environment and physical and mental health and longevity. 
One study examining environmental green space and mental health outcomes found that higher levels of neighborhood green space were associated with lower levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. 
Researchers conducted an ecological study to investigate urban green space and mental health and found that a shorter distance from use-able green space and increased proportion of green space in urban environments was associated with decreased anxiety disorder treatment counts.
One study that examined mortality records, income deprivation, and green space concluded that populations exposed to the greenest environments had the lowest levels of health inequality related to income deprivation.
Researchers conducted a cohort study examining distance and use of urban green space and cardiovascular diseases. The study concluded that cardiovascular risk factors were lowest among park users than non-users. It was also found that an increase in distance from green space was related to a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. 
A systematic review was conducted on how urban green space may buffer noise pollution and found that there was moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can reduce the negative perception of noise. 
A study published in the Journal of Environmental Psychology found that participants who walked in a nature reserve showed blood pressure change that indicated a greater stress reduction than those that walked in an urban setting .